Drivers are constantly making choices and decisions, concerning not only the driving itself but also the use of the growing number of devices available inside the car. At the same time, cars are becoming more “intelligent” and capable of performing relatively complex maneuvers in a semiautonomous manner. Examples of relatively simple maneuvers that many current cars can execute are adaptive cruise control (i.e., automatically adjusting the car’s speed to maintain a safe distance from the car in front), parallel parking and backing out of a parking space. More complex maneuvers that can be expected in the next few years include entering and leaving a highway, changing lanes, overtaking one or more cars and even navigating construction sites.
Complex maneuvers require drivers to make various choices, like deciding whether to tell the car to execute a specific maneuver (as opposed to doing it manually or omitting it entirely); deciding among two or more available variants of the same maneuver; deciding whether to intervene and assume control of the vehicle if something unexpected occurs during the execution of a maneuver by the car; or deciding which additional activities can be attempted during the execution of a maneuver, without compromising driving safety. Enabling drivers to make better decisions during driving is an important goal in the design of automotive interfaces. Much relevant research has been done in the past, but many types of driver decision remain highly problematic.